As far back as the 1860s, a school has existed in the Armenian Convent at the location where Sts. Tarkmanchatz stands today. Named for the nuns whose faith and chastity contributed to Armenia's conversion to Christianity, the Kayanyants Tbrots, (Kayanian School), educated young girls of the Armenian community in Jerusalem. When the community became a refuge for survivors fleeing the Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Emptire during WWI, Archbishop Yeghishe Tourian, of blessed memory, recognized the need for a new school building to educate the growing number of children and their future descendents. With subsidization from the Markarian and Jivhirjian families of Constantinople, the Armenian Patriarchate constructed a new school building, which opened in 1929.
The new Sts. Tarkmanchatz Armenian School, now a co-educational institution, served only kindergarten and elementary students for its first 23 years. In 1952, the school's principal, Bishop Guregh Kapigian, of blessed memory, acted to further the education of the students, adopting the British General Certificate of Education. Under the new curriculum, students' schooling continued through grade twelve. Bishop Kapigian would go on to serve as principal for over forty years, until 1995. The British General Certificate of Education serves as the curriculum to this day.